Sharon Villlines, Sociocracy.info
Personally I object to the use of the word "block" as synonymous with "objection" and this entry explains some of the reasons why.
What is a block? This is not a facetious question. If this is the word people want to use, what does it mean? From the accounts on the Cohousing-L email discussion list between cohousing communities that uniformly use consent/consensus decision-making, block is used to describe an objection is more a veto. The discussion goes like this:
First the word block is used to describe someone who after much discussion still doesn't consent to a proposal. Almost inevitably, a block is explained as being based on personal preferences. It's the personal preferences that seem to be the problem. A "valid block" has to be based on community values. If it isn't, it is based on personal preferences it is an "invalid block."
Since a block is an objection based on personal preferences, rather than community values, a skilled facilitator is needed to step in and "fix" it. A magician to assert community values. Someone who can persuade the unpersuadable.
Objections in sociocracy are based on logical arguments and not personal preferences, but in a community where one lives, an objection based on personal preferences may be perfectly logical and thus valid. For example, the right to object to a tree being planted in front of the only window on the north side of your unit. Since your unit only has two exterior walls, north and south, and your personal preferences are to have light and to be able to see the rest of the community from your window, do you have the right to object or are these personal preferences? Others want a tree there to balance the landscape and address water drainage issues, but these are also personal preferences because there are other ways to balance the landscape and solve drainage issues. Whose personal preferences are based on community values and whose are not?
Values are important. They give purpose to life. They make us human. Values are necessary, but they are not sufficient. Values have to be translated into actions before they are more than words that make us feel good. For example:
-- We value the lives of birds so we will feed them all winter.
-- We value the lives of birds so we won't allow outdoor cats.
-- We value the lives of birds so we will have a large bird sanctuary in the common house.
-- We value the lives of birds so we will have outdoor cats to reduce the population to a manageable level rather than having them starve.
All of these actions are based on valuing birds. Many actions will rely on many personal preferences about how to express values. Which result best addresses the value. The key is on what basis will success be determined? Feeding birds all winter is considered to be dangerous to birds because they become dependent on being fed. If the action is to restrict outdoor cats, will that accomplish the purpose? Is a bird sanctuary really any life for a bird? How in danger is the bird population anyway?
What is the aim of valuing birds? Why do you value them? An action is something you can measure. Without measuring whether the aim is being achieved, it won't be clear that it is being accomplished. The what and the how is the decision that can be done on the basis of logical argument and then improved by trial and error. But the aim has to be clear for that to happen, not just the values.
Conditions for Consensus Decision-Making
The people who consent to a proposal also have personal preferences. Weren't their preferences blocking the preferences of the person who is labelled as blocking? Isn't this just majority vote but the majority wants everyone to go along because another value is consensus in decision-making?
Consensus decision-making only works when
- everyone has a common aim,
- is willing and able to deliberate together long enough to resolve all objections, and
- chooses to make decisions with this group.
It is said that consensus can't work in cohousing communities because people can't choose with whom they make decisions. But the premise of cohousing is that one has chosen to make decisions with everyone who lives there—a diverse, self-selecting group. That group, however, still needs to have a common aim in relation to the decision being made and they still have to sit together long enough to resolve objections.
Consent and objections in sociocracy are based on the ability of the person to support/respect/implement the actions required by the proposal. The ability to do that may indeed be based on personal preferences. If planting a tree in front of a window causes a person to move away because they can't do their job of being a good community member, whose actions have supported the values of the community.
Vision, Mission, Aim
Values relate to a vision statement. A vision is a dream. It's what you want the world to be. A vision is intangible and not a good plan for action. Measurements based on visions and values will always be based on person preference. You need more: a Mission.
For those reading this website, the mission will probably be cohousing or cohousing plus ___. Plus a bakery, an eco-village, a home school, etc.
The vision and mission together lead to the aim. The aim is the tangible basis for taking action. Actions can be measured to determine their success. Did that action achieve our aim? How do we need to improve it?
I think groups may be trying to make decisions based on their vision, not their aim. What is called a "personal preference" is really a values issue and can't be measured as valid or invalid. Though values may guide actions, only actions and results can be measured. The resolution of objections should be focused on the aim of the proposal, how to accomplish it, and how to measure the results. Is the aim shared by everyone? Who decided that?
If there is no common aim, how can there be a consensus? If the proposal has no aim, no measurable result, how can it be useful?
The problem with "blocks" is usually:
- lack of a common or well-defined aim and/or
- avoidance of using a more appropriate decision-making method, like preference rating or majority vote.
Unless the group can meet all the conditions necessary to use consensus, "blocks" will continue to occur as the result of trying to use a decision-making method that isn't appropriate.
Sociocracy: Collaborative Organization